The Food Label and You

[music] The United States Food and
Drug Administration presents “The Food Label and You.” Now here’s your host,
Dr. Samuel Franklin. Hello. I am Dr. Samuel Franklin
with the United States Food and Drug Administration. Today, significant advances in
the areas of nutrition science and modern day chemistry make
the United States one of the foremost authorities in
the production and supply– [music] We’ve all got to eat
three squares a day: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. And most of the time I bet you
don’t even think about what you’re eating. That’s not good. Your body is like
a fine tuned machine. The food you eat is the
fuel that keeps you running, but how do you know
the nutritional value in that cup of yogurt
or that bowl of cereal? Look on the label. Hey, I’m Gia and I’m
here to talk about the nutrition facts label. If you want to stay
healthy and energetic, then reading and understanding
food labels can help you make food choices that
give you more energy and help you feel your best. And we can all use
a little more brain power. Don’t say it. Don’t even think it. There are three things
you need to know about the nutrition facts label,
just three. Calories, serving size,
and percent daily value. Got it? Well, if you still feel kind of
overwhelmed by the whole idea of actually reading
and understanding food labels, you’re not alone. Let’s see how much the ordinary
person on the street knows about this subject. Thanks, Gia. Well, it’s a little cold
for dining al fresco, but we’ve got work to do. Let’s find our first victim. So what do you think is
the official serving size of a bowl of cereal? I think that one. That one?
Yes. Two.
Two? ‘Cause I’d probably
eat number two. Totally two. What would be the official
serving size of cereal? Number three.
It looks like number three. Tell me which
number you think? Bowl number two. Your opinion on what you
think an official serving size of cereal might be. Three.
Would you eat what’s in– Oh, I didn’t know.
Bowl number three. You would–big breakfast. What’s in bowl one,
bowl two, or bowl three? I would probably do two. Would you point to what you
think would be an official size? I think it’s a lot
smaller than I usually have. Lots more than I think it is. I think it’s gonna
be number one. My work is done here. Okay, we’re gonna make this
easy to understand because this can be confusing. For instance, if I have
1 of those 20 ounce sodas, how many servings is that? One? Two? Twenty? You’re craving
a nice, juicy burger. How many calories
are you getting? Add cheese, supersize it, you
know the calories are going ka-ching, ka-ching. But exactly how many are there? If you eat 18 grams of fat,
which is 28% DV at breakfast, how much can you eat at lunch
to remain below the recommended daily value? Have the salad. Okay, it’s not algebra, but you
do need to do a little math to make the best food
choices you can. To give us a hand, we’ve turned
to the experts at CSI to help us out, the calorie
scene investigators. [music] Hey, don’t tamper
with the evidence. What do we got so far, Sally? Well, I think we’re up
against the toughest case this lab has ever had. I’ve got a serving
of vanilla ice cream. That’s exhibit A in the new
caloriemograph our lab just got. Oh, yes. We’re the first to get
the multimillion dollar caloriemograph. Checking calories, huh? You know, calories provide
a measure of how much energy is in a serving of this food. That’s right. And calories are assessed
based on serving size. And as a calorie
scene investigator, I have come to find that
appearances can be deceiving. Consuming too many calories
per day can lead to obesity and being overweight. Here’s what doesn’t
add up, Derrick. I’m getting a calorie reading
of 150 calories for 1 serving of exhibit A, vanilla ice cream,
while an identical serving of fruit juice pop is
only 60 calories. The same serving size of
the frozen juice pop has almost a third of the calories
of exhibit A? That’s right. Then let’s call
the juice pop exhibit B. Good idea. Let’s check past histories
to see if there’s a trend. Hand over those chips. I want to get
an analysis of them. This isn’t gonna be pretty. [music] Oh, only
170 calories per serving. Not so bad. But Derrick, do you know
the reading I’m getting for a serving size? Nine to fifteen chips. Yeah?
No biggie. Actually, it’s
really not very big. The point is you’ve already had
about 30 without even thinking. How can this be?
I didn’t even eat the whole bag. I’ve got to contact
Lieutenant Vain and tell him our new finding. [music] Thank you, Derrick. Let me know when
the final results are in. Well, Pete, while we were
making a case for calories, Derrick seems to think that the
answer lies in serving size. And serving sizes are not
always what they appear to be. What’s going on here? Ma’am, this is a calorie
scene investigation. I’m CSI Lieutenant Vain. I’m going to have to inspect
your groceries before you enter the scene. What are you looking for? We’re looking for calorie
content and its elusive accomplice, serving size. These will have to
go back to the lab. The lab?
Why the lab? Don’t worry, ma’am. With our multimillion
dollar caloriemograph, we can tell exactly
how many calories are in a single serving. Multimillions? Lieutenant Vain, there is no
need to go to all that trouble. Why don’t you enlighten me? When I go shopping, I just look at
the nutrition facts label. Just the nutrition
facts label, ma’am? It tells me everything I need
to know about the percent daily values of the food
that I buy for my family. Let me show you. Each label actually starts
out with serving size and calories per serving size. So peanut butter, serving
size is 2 tablespoons, that’s 190 calories. Hummus is 70 calories
for 2 tablespoons. Hummus, the Middle Eastern
dip made from mashed cooked chick peas, blended with lemon
juice, tahini, garlic, olive oil, and salt. It became quite popular in the
U.S., but what I didn’t know is that it was so low calorie. But here’s the tricky part. While 2 tablespoons of peanut
butter or hummus might be satisfying, they aren’t
necessarily what I would eat in a sitting. And they certainly aren’t
what my growing son would eat. He’s on the swim team and his
idea of a serving can be totally different from what’s
on a label. Luckily he swims a lot. Ma’am, what about this bag? May I? Mm, while this bag might
seem like one serving to my son’s untrained eye,
there are actually two and a half servings here. That means instead
of 140 calories, it’s actually 350 calories. And that extra 200 calories
a day can add up to 20 pounds of weight gain over
the course of a year. What’s interesting is that
serving sizes are often given in familiar measurements
like cups or pieces. Even so, a package may
contain more than one serving. For instance, milk is calculated
based on an 8-ounce cup serving. I guess that is just the way
the calorie cookie crumbles. [music] Serving size, servings per
container, calories per serving. Starting to get the picture? Well, how do you tell just what
a single serving is when it’s something like cereal? For instance, which of these
bowls is the right size for a single serving of cereal? As described on most cereal
boxes, you’re thinking, pfft, both of ’em. I want a bowl of cereal
and they’re bowls, right? But that’s exactly
the problem, they’re bowls. But the nutrition facts label
is based on a cup of cereal. Not how I eat cereal. Now that’s a bowl of cereal,
but it takes about 2 cups to fill this bowl. That’s two servings
you’re eating at once. Add milk and you’ve
got a lot of calories. That’s why it’s so
important to pay attention to the nutrition facts label. Sure, bowls come in
all different sizes, but mostly they hold
more than a cup. And an 8 ounce cup is
the serving size listed on most cereal food labels
based on a typical 2,000 calorie-a-day diet. So even if you eat
a healthy, low fat, low sugar, high fiber cereal, eating
enough of it tips the scales, literally. Pour yourself a bowl of high
protein granola with lots of nuts and dried fruit. That’s more than you need if
you’re sitting at the computer all day, but fine if you’re
planning a workout like running or hiking. It’s all about balance. And there’s actually
a nutritional rule to help you achieve balance
in your eating habits. Ever heard of the 5-20 rule? It sounds just about as
complicated as a mathematical equation, but let’s see if
anybody here on the street can help us out. Excuse me, sir. What’s the 5-20 rule? I don’t know what
the 5-20 rule is actually. I’ve never heard of it. It sounds like
a tax code thing. The 5-20 rule. Exactly. Any ideas, Sam? Yeah. Maybe vitamins? Five carbs, twenty grains? There–wait, are there
five or seven–? Let’s keep asking
the 5-20 rule. Is it local or federal? Okay, could you tell me–can
you tell me what the 5-20 rule is? I don’t know. The 5-20 rule?
Mm-hmm. Is it something about five
fruits and vegetables every day? Where is everyone? I don’t know. Can you tell me
what the 5-20 rule is? What is it about? It has something
to do with nutrition. Does anything come to mind? The 5-20. I have no idea. I mean, I’ve–I think
I’ve heard of it, but– We’re still confused here. It’s very complicated,
we need some help. Please. Here’s the deal
with 5-20 rule. If a food has 5% or less of
the daily value of a nutrient, say a bottle of juice that
contains less than 5% calcium, then that food isn’t a good
source of that nutrient, calcium in this case. But a food with 20% or
more of a nutrient means it is a good source. So, a glass of milk that has 25%
calcium is an excellent source. The rule also works for
nutrients you may not want a lot of,
like saturated fat or sodium. With those nutrients, try
to stick to the servings closer to 5%, not 20%. It’s all based on
a 2,000 calorie daily diet. And that brings us
back to balance, like those after school
snacks mom used to serve, healthy and tasty. [music] Hey, mom, I’m home. Hey, Danny, how
was swim practice? Great.
My best time yet. But I’m hungry after
all that swimming. Oh, I bet you are. How about a cup of soup to
hold you over until dinner? What kind? Well, let’s see. We’ve got cream of
mushroom, minestrone, and healthy chicken noodle. How about healthy
chicken noodle? Oh, that’s
a good choice for you. How come? Well, it’s got the nutrients
an active guy your age needs, 28% DV of vitamin A,
and it’s a good helping of carbohydrates to boot. Plus, it’s low fat, less
than 5%, and lower in sodium, less than 20% DV. You sound like
a nutritionist, Mom. How do you know all that? It’s all right here in
the nutrition facts label. When figuring out nutrition,
remember the 5-20 rule, 5% is low, 20% high. If you want less
of a nutrient, aim for 5%. More, 20%. I get it. Coach says he wants us
to have more protein, so I should look for the
higher percentage of that. Twenty, right?
Right. Well, if I want to
win a medal next week, I better start reading. The nutrition facts
label, that is. [laughing] To review, if a food has
5% or less of the daily value of a nutrient, say less
than 5% fiber, then that food isn’t a good
source of that nutrient. Twenty percent or
more means it is. That’s the 5-20 rule. Conversely, you can
use the 5-20 rule to know what foods to limit. For instance, if you’re
trying to get less sodium, look for a food with
20% DV or less of sodium. [music] I thought I smelled
something good. We’re eating
some soup, grandpa. That sounds great. Maybe I’ll warm up
with some soup too. There are a lot
of good choices. See what you like
and I’ll make you some. Cream of mushroom, too much
saturated fat and sodium for me. Well, we all need to watch
our saturated fat and sodium. Try the healthy minestrone. It’s low fat, a good source
of fiber, and lower in sodium. Just what the doctor ordered
since I’m not getting to walk as much in this cold weather. Well, we all wish
we had Danny’s energy. But when we eat
right for our age, we all feel
a little bit younger. [laughing] Danny is very active, so he’s
looking for more carbohydrates and probably has a larger
calorie intake than gramps. On the other hand, gramps
can use a bit more protein and needs to watch his cholesterol. Here’s another example
of the 5-20 rule. These are 8-ounce glasses of
apple juice, orange juice, and tomato juice. Apple juice only has 4% of your
daily requirement of vitamin C, less than 5, so it’s
not a good source of C. OJ has more than 100%
and so does tomato juice, so they’re great sources. One glass and you’re good on
vitamin C for the entire day. But tomato juice has less than
half the calories of the other two and a lot less sugar, so
it’s a really great choice. But it’s also got
a lot more sodium, so make sure you read
the nutrition facts label. Okay, let’s review. Nutrition facts labels are your
key to calories, serving sizes, and daily values that
follow the 5-20 rule. So before you chow down, check
the calories and serving size. If it says a serving is
6 ounces like some yogurts, then the nutrients are
based on a 6-ounce cup. That means there are fewer
calories in a serving, which could be a good thing. But serving sizes
can be bad news too. For example, on something
like chips or cookies, a package may contain
more than one serving. Oo, this one has two? That means if you eat
the whole package, you’re getting two times
the calories listed. And with cereal and
pasta, okay, in real life, I eat my cereal and
pasta by the bowl-full, but on planet
nutrition facts label, it’s by the cup or
portion of the box. Make sure you check the label
to know how many calories and nutrients you’re really getting. And don’t forget the 5-20 rule. If a food has 5% or
less of a nutrient, it’s not a good source
of that nutrient. If it has 20% or more,
it is an excellent source. You can get the score on
all the foods you eat if you use the 5-20 rule. And if you’re a sports fan,
that’s totally an inside tip. [music] Welcome to “Game time.”
I’m Pat Somerhill. And I’m Gail Merand. Today it’s the battle of
the dueling dinner parties. At stake, bragging rights for
healthiest food get-togethers. Pat. Well, Gail, you know,
there’s lots of food out there, that’s for sure. But the question is, how do you
choose nutrients or foods wisely when you’re away from home
and, say, at a dinner party? Well, that’s what we’re
here to find out, Pat. Let’s take a look at
our two contenders. Up first, the Simpsons, who’ve
invited some friends over for a typical sit-down affair. It’ll be interesting to see what
the hostess has come up with for the menu there, Pat. And out on the other side,
we’ve got their neighbors, the Jacksons, who have invited
a few friends over for an informal Sunday afternoon
football celebration. Now their game plan includes
lots of finger foods and a buffet style setting. Joe Santana’s on the sidelines
with Mr. Jackson now. Joe.
Thanks, Pat. Frank, you’ve got some serious
competition from the Simpsons for dinner tonight. What’s your game plan
for keeping it healthy without making it boring? Joe, this party is gonna
be anything but boring. We’ve got football, after all. And don’t forget the veggies. Veggies with a ball game?
Sure. We have fresh broccoli,
tomatoes, cauliflower, and my favorite,
sweet yellow peppers. Believe it or not,
they make a good snack. Well, as we all know
with the 5-20 rule, 20% or more of a nutrient
is high, 5% is low. So these veggies are an
excellent source of vitamin C, very low in sodium
and saturated fat. Back to you, Pat.
Thanks, Joe. It’s a great start to what
could be a big battle. Now they’re just sitting down
to dinner at the Simpsons, but we spoke to
Fran Simpson earlier today. Now here’s what she had to
say about her game plan. You have a hungry crowd
coming over today, Fran. What’s on the menu? Well, I’ve got individual
game hens for everyone, a side salad, and
baked potatoes. Oh, and I see you’re also
planning soup for an appetizer. Oh, yeah, soup’s
always a good starter. I’m planning a hearty tomato
soup with fresh rosemary and garlic croutons. It’s easy to make and it’s
packed with vitamin C. It sounds like a winner. We’ll see how it goes over
with the dinner party. Gail. Back at the Jackson’s, the
ball game’s just about to start. They’ve laid out the
spread and our first guest is loading up his plate. Now despite the side of veggies,
that pile of wings is gonna cost him. A serving size is three wings
and it looks like he’s got six. Add the half dozen pizza bites
and he’s well on his way to more than his total daily
value in many categories. Well, let’s take
a look at the score so far. We’ve got 30% DV saturated fat
from those 6 wings and another 15% from the pizza bites for
a total of 45% daily value from those 2 foods alone. Now the only good news is the
64% DV protein from the meat and the 150% DV
vitamin C from the peppers. And at the Simpsons I
assume the nutrition score is much better, Gail? Well, you would
think so, Pat, but Fran’s made a last
minute change in the lineup. Now the tomato soup was pulled
and replaced with French onion. It’s particularly high in sodium
and the large piece of cheese on top helps it weigh in at
a whopping 30% daily value of saturated fat. You’re right, Gail. And if we go by the 5-20 rule,
30% is over the 5% DV maximum we’d like to limit
ourselves to each day. Now at the same time, while the
Cornish hen adds 60% daily value of protein, it also tacks on
another 35% DV of saturated fat. Still better than the neighbors,
but the Simpsons haven’t locked up a win yet. Hold on, Pat. It looks like we’ve gone off
the playbook at the Jackson’s. They brought out some chicken
breast wraps and they seem to be very popular. The whole grain gives it
a whopping 31% DV of fiber, and the flavorful low-cal
dressing comes in at only 3% DV of saturated fat. I think the momentum
is shifting, Pat. And I think
you’re right, Gail. Surprisingly, it looks like
they’re not sticking to the game plan over
at the Simpson’s. And it looks like they’ve
forgotten the 5-20 rule. Butter and sour cream
on the potatoes, a creamy dressing on
the salad, and is that eggnog? I’m afraid it is, Pat. And the portions
are out of control. Potatoes and salad add much
needed fiber and vitamins, but look at the size
of those servings. A surprise outcome in
the battle of the dueling dinner parties, Gail. And this just underscores how
important it is to not only choose nutrients wisely,
but to also pay attention to serving size and calories
per serving. For “Game Time,”
I’m Pat Somerhill. And I’m Gail Merand,
see you next time. [music] As the sports guy showed us,
one of the hardest times to get nutritional information and
make good choices is when you’re away from home. And when you’re
hungry and in a hurry, it’s easy to order
without thinking. Oh, excuse me. May I help you, sir? Yes, ma’am.
I’m hungry and I’m in a hurry. Let me get a supersize
burger, supersize fries, supersize milkshake, super-fast. I want everything on it
on the double, please. Sir, I have to warn you
that this meal runs the risk of throwing your diet
off balance. There’s a lot of fat
and added sugar, and unless you plan on
burning those calories off, you may want to consider
ordering something else. How am I supposed to
know what’s in the food? I mean, this is a restaurant. It’s not like they have food
labels on the menu out here. Well, some restaurants do
provide nutritional information. It’s on the web or inside the
restaurant and some actually do print it on the menu. But the best advice I can give
you when you’re craving foods that are deep fried or really
high in sugar is to follow what my mother always used to say,
everything in moderation. Hmm, my mom used
to say that too. So, make your
choice based on that. Well, in that case,
give me a small order. I think that is
a great choice, sir. Thank you.
Thank you. And remember, you can sometimes
find nutritional information on restaurant food to make good
choices when you eat out. Yes, there will be
a quiz on this later. Wait, make that now. [music] Welcome back to “Are you
Smarter than a Food Label?” the game show that tests
the food label knowledge of ordinary, everyday,
average people. I’m your host, Label Dan, the
FDA’s graphic representation of the nutrition facts label. No, really. Our next contestant hails from
the lettuce capital of the U.S. His friends call him Bulldog,
but say he wouldn’t hurt a fly. All the way from
sunny California, please give a warm nutrition
facts label welcome to Mr. Tim Patrick. [applauding] Tim, we’ll ask you
the question and you’ll have the chance to answer
or go to the food label or simply pass. However, you’re allowed only one
pass before you’re disqualified. Let’s get started. First question is
multiple choice. A serving size is
determined by A, the size of
the package it’s in; B, a predetermined portion that’s
easily found on the nutrition facts label; or C, the weight
of the person eating that particular serving. I’ll–I’ll go with B,
a predetermined portion that’s easily found on
the nutrition facts label. Correct! A package can easily have
more than one serving. Remember, the nutrition facts
label has the serving size and the number of servings
as well as other important nutritional information. Next question, true or false,
the calorie section of the nutrition facts label shows
the number of calories in that particular package. I’ll have to say
true, label man. Oh, I’m sorry, but it shows
the number of calories per serving, not per package. Next question, what
is the 5-20 rule? A, the formula for the number of
calories it takes to run 5 miles in 20 minutes; B, the body’s
standard burn rate for fat in a food; or C, a way to
tell if a food is low or high in a particular nutrient. That’s easy, label man. The answer is C, a way to tell
if a food is low or high in a particular nutrient. That’s right! If a food’s daily value, or DV,
of a nutrient is 5% or less, it’s low in that nutrient. Twenty percent or
more means it’s high. This can be bad or good
depending on if it’s a nutrient you want more or less of. Can you give me an example
of a nutrient on each end of the scale, Tim? Something like saturated fat
would be a good thing to get 5% or less of, I would think. And you probably want
a high number, 20% DV or more, of something like calcium
or fiber, probably. Good choices! Other nutrients to get more of
include vitamins A, C, and iron. And those to get less of
include saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Moving along to our next
question, true or false, it’s impossible to truly know
the nutritional value of a meal when you’re away from home. Tim? Well, I know that many
restaurants are including healthy choices on their menus
now like light fares or low sodium
or low fat selections. I’m not sure if they include
the nutritional value, however. Oh, I did see the nutrition
facts listed on a napkin at one takeout place
the other day. I’m gonna have to go
with false, label man. That’s right! Many restaurants and food chains
are making the nutritional information available
on their Web sites, their menus at the restaurant,
even on the wrappers of their takeout food in some instances. If you can’t find it, just ask. Tim, you’re doin’
pretty good so far. You’ve come down to
the final question. Get this one right
and you win the grand prize. Answer it incorrectly
and you go home empty-handed. Are you ready to put
it all on the line? I am, label man.
Okay, here we go. What are the three things
to remember when making healthy food choices? You have 10 seconds. [music] Okay, Tim, let’s
see how you answered. That would be
calories, servings, and percent daily value. That’s correct! You’re our grand prize winner! Congratulations! Make sure you join
us next time on “Are You Smarter Than
a Food Label?” Bye bye, everybody! [music] Man, am I hungry.
I wonder what’s for dinner.

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